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Диплом  Literary coinages and nonce-words

Предмет:Иностранные языки.
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Фрагменты работы:

Тheoretical part
1. The main aspects of neologisms
1.1. The notion of neologisms
1.2. Types of neologisms
1.3. Ways and means of formation
1.4. Purism
1.5. The fate of newly coined words
2. Nonce-words
2.1. Origin of nonce-words
2.2. Ways and means of formation
2.3. Nonce-words in the oxford english dictionary
2.4. Nonce-words in literature
3. Hapax legomena
3.1. The notion of hapax legomena
3.2. Comparison with neologisms and nonce-words …
Practical part
4.1. Literary coinages and nonce-words in the novel “alice in wonderland and through the looking-glass” by lewis carroll about the book “alice in wonderland and through the looking-glass
4.2 literary coinages and nonce-words in the novel “alice in wonderland and through the looking-glass”
4.3 nonsense verse “jabberwocky”

Language is an intermediary between the individual and society. Meaning does not reside in language but in the individual. Therefore if a person seeks meaning in life through language, he goes round in circles. What needs to be done is to first find meaning in life, and then encapsulate it in language. Language has the function of converting meanings into values. Language incorporates social values. However, social values are only the same as linguistic values when the society is a stable and unchanging one. Language contains traditional values – this is what is implied in the ideas of social conditioning and social learning. In a static society, traditional values are unquestioned. Hence social learning takes the form of social conditioning. Social conditioning is the unquestioned or confused adherence to social norms, and occurs when society is taken to be self-referential. Society is the judge of its own needs. The only circumstance that normally breaks social conditioning in some degree is change. Once society starts changing, then language change produces special effects.
Every living language can readily be adapted to meet changes occurring in the life and culture of its speakers, and the main weight of such changes falls on vocabulary. Grammatical and phonological structures are relatively stable and change noticeably over centuries rather than decades, but vocabularies can change very quickly both in word stock and in word meanings. Consider as an example the changes wrought by modern technology in the vocabularies of all European languages since 1945. Before that date transistor and cosmonaut did not exist, and nuclear disarmament would scarcely have had any clear meaning.
Language can alter its vocabulary very easily, it means that every speaker can without effort adopt new words, accept or invent new meanings for existing words, and of course, cease to use some words or cease to use them in certain meanings. Dictionaries list some words and some meanings as “obsolete” (no longer in use or no longer useful) or “obsolescent” (becoming obsolete) to indicate this process. No two speakers share precisely the same vocabulary of words readily used and readily understood, though they may speak the same dialect. They will, however, naturally have the great majority of words in their vocabularies in common. In the present paper work we touch upon the questions of coinages and nonce-words in literature. Not only word meanings are somewhat different in different literary works; they are not fixed for all time in language. Semantic changes take place all along, and at any moment the semantic area covered by a word is indeterminately bordered and differs from context to context. This is one of the aspects and conditions of the inherent and necessary flexibility of language. This argument will be developed in the pursuit of the main aims of the study, which are as follows:
- to define different types of literary coinages;
- to present detailed presentations and classifications;
- to compare the existing types;
- to investigate the literary work by Lewis Carroll, whose style of writing; is one of the brightest examples of new words coinages;

By dividing this study into two parts, we have tried to give due weight to the range of vocabulary units such as literary coinages, neologisms and nonce-words used in works of literature.
There is no doubt that the study of literary coinages is actual nowadays, for modern language produces more and more newly coined words and their fate is


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